تأثیر عوامل اقتصادی بر روی عملکرد ورزشی کشورهای منتخب شرکت کننده در یونیورسیادهای تابستانی 1999 تا 2015 دانشجویان جهان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مدیریت ورزش، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تبریزو دانشگاه خوارزمی، تبریز، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف تعیین تأثیر شاخص‌های اقتصادی کشورها بر روی عملکرد آنها در یونیورسیادهای تابستانی 1999 تا 2015 دانشجویان جهان صورت گرفت. با مطالعة ادبیات پژوهش پنج متغیر تولید ناخالص داخلی، سرانۀ تولید ناخالص داخلی، نرخ تورم، ضریب جینی و نرخ بیکاری به‌عنوان شاخص‌های اقتصادی کشورها انتخاب شدند. جمع‌آوری داده‌های متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش از طریق سایت معتبر بانک جهانی صورت گرفت. مدال‌های کسب‌شده توسط هر کشور نیز به‌عنوان عملکرد ورزشی در نظر گرفته شد که از طریق فیزو جمع‌آوری شد. روش پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی بود و داده‌های پژوهش طی سال‌های 1999 تا 2015 (طی 9 دوره برگزاری رقابت‌ها) جمع‌آوری شد. جامعة آماری تحقیق 97 کشور بود که از این میان، 69 کشور به‌عنوان نمونۀ آماری انتخاب شدند. در ابتدا برای بررسی ایستایی (مانایی) داده‌ها از آزمون لوین، لین، چو استفاده شد و در نهایت برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از روش‌های اقتصادسنجی (پنل نامتوازن) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد از میان عوامل اقتصادی شناسایی‌شدة پژوهش، شاخص‌های تولید ناخالص داخلی، سرانۀ تولید ناخالص داخلی، تورم و میزان بیکاری، بر عملکرد ورزشی کشورها مؤثرند. بنابراین مسئولان ورزش کشور می‌توانند با در نظر گرفتن این عوامل برنامه‌ریزی‌های لازم را در جهت موفقیت در ورزش دانشجویی به‌کار بندند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


1. Khooli A. Sports and Society. Translated by Hamid Reza Sheikhi, Tehran, PA: Organization for the Study and Compilation of Human Sciences Books of Universities (SAMT); 2002.

2. Marmot M.The status syndrome: how social standing affects our health and longevity, PA: New York Henry Holt and Co; 2004.

 

3. Brown JV, Rusinova N.L. Socioeconomic status and heath related institutions and cultures in the former soviet sphere. University at the conference on heath, institutions and cultures in the former soviet sphere, University of Texas- Austin; 2007.

 

4. Master man G. Translators by Seyyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Mohammad Reza Boroumand, Mohsen Bolourian.Strategic Sports Event Management, Tehran, PA: North Permanent Cultural Institute; 2008.

 

5. Moghaddas M, Hamidi M, Jafary A. [Comparison of the views of experts, managers and heroes on the role of the television broadcasting of sports events in the development of championship sports (in Persian)]. Journal of Communication management in sports media. 2014; 4(1): 24-31.

 

6. Nauright J, (2004). Global Games: Culture, Political Economy and Sport in the Globalized World of the 21 st century. Third World Quarterly. 2004; 25(7): 1325-1336.

7. Sadegh arany Z, Mirghafory S.H. [Analysis of the developmental state of sport in the provinces of Iran during 2005-2006 (in Persian)]. Journal of Research in Sport Sciences. 2009; 24:103-120.

8. Akbary A. Describe the state of tennis sports on the table of men of the country [M.A].Univercity of Tarbiat Moallem; 1995.

9. Parker C. Performance measurement. The Journal of Available. (2000); 49: 56-70.

 

10. Poupaux S. Performance Economies’ ET Success Olympique: UN reexamine. Version preliminaries presentee au seminars du ROSES, (2004).

 

11. Saaty T. L. Who Won the 2008 Olympics?A Multicriteria Decision of Measuring Intangibles, University of Pittsburgh. (2008).

 

12. Swinnen J., Vademoortele T. Sport and Development: An Economic perspective on the Impact of the 2010 World Cup in South Africa: LICOS Center for Institutions and Economic Performance Katholieke Universities Leuven. (2008).

 

13. Abdi H, Sajjadi S.N. [Comparison of continents of results and medals of the Summer Olympics (2004-1896). Olympic quarterly (in Persian)]. 2009; 17(1):81-93.

 

14. Ziary K, Gharakhlou M, Janbabanejad. M.H. [Comparative Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Indices of Housing in Babol City with Urban Urban Areas with Emphasis on Healthy City, Journal of Geographical Research Magazine (in Persian)]. 2010; 25(2):83-116.

 

15. Carter N, Felton N, Schwartzman N. A Classroom Investigation of the Effect of Population Size and Income on Success in the London 2012 Olympics. Journal of Statistics Education. 2014; 22(2), 1-20.

 

16. Vagenas G, Vlachokyriakou E. Olympic medals and demo-economic factors: Novel predictors, the ex-host effect, the exact role of team size, and the “population GDP” model revisited. Journal of Sport Management Review. (2012); 15: 211-217.

 

17. Emrich E., Markus K., Werner P., Christian p. On the Determinants of Sporting Success – A Note on the Olympic Games. CJournal of Economic Bulletin. 212; 32 (3): 1890-1901.

 

18. Jiang Y., Ma T., Huang Z. The Economic Factors analysis in Olympic Game. International Journal of sports science and Engineering 2010; 4(3): 181-187.

 

19. Vali Beighi H, Panahi F. [The position of Iran in the global economy compared to the selected countries (from the perspective of human development indicators, economic freedom and business space) (in Persian)]. Journal of business reviews. October and November 2010; 43: 28-32.

 

20. Sajjadi S.N, Safary H.R, Saatchian V, Rasouli S.M. [Prioritizing the Factors Affecting the Success of Iran's Sports Caravan in the 2010 Asian Games of Guangzhou (in Persian)]. Journal of Contemporary Research in Sport Management. Spring and summer 2013; 5:1-14.

 

21. Buts C., Bois C.D., Heyndels B., Jegers M. Socioeconomic Determinants of Success at the Summer Para Olympics. Journal of Sport Economics 2013 14: 133 originally published online 19 December 2011; 14(2): 133-147.

 

22. Custonja Z., Skoric S. Winning medals at the Olympic games-Does Croatia have any change? Journal of Kinesiology. (2011); 43 (1):107-114.

 

23. Johnson D.K.N., Ali A. A tale of two seasons: Participation and medal counts at the summer and Winter Olympic Games. Social Science Quarterly. (2000); 85: 974-993.

 

25. Hoffman R., Ging L, Remasany Olympic success and ASEAN countries: Economic analysis and policy implication. Journal of sports Economics (2004); 5(3): 262-276.

 

26. Luiz J., Fadal R. An economic analysis of sports performance in Africa. International Journal of social Economics. 2010; 38(10):869-883.

 

27. Gelade Garry A., Dobson P. Predicting the Comparative Strengths of National Football Teams. Social Science Quarterly (Blackwell Publishing Limited). (2007); 88(1): 244-258.

 

28. Bernard A., busses M.R. Who win the Olympic Games: Economic resources and medal totals? Journal of Review of Economics and statistics. 2004; 86(1): 413-511.

 

29. Matros A., Namoro S.D. (2004). Economic incentives of the Olympic Games / on line /. Retrieved Januray5, 2008 from: http://ssrn.com/ abstract =5888820

 

30. Houston R.G. Jr, Wilson D.P. Income, Leisure and Proficiency: An Economic study of Football Performance. Journal of Applied Economic Letters. (2002); 9: 939-943.

 

31. Rahimi M, Shariaty Feizabady M, Sofy M. [Relationship between demographic and economic indicators with the success rate of athletes with disabilities in the Paraguay 2010 Games of Gwangju ( in Persian)]. Journal of Research in Sport Management. 2013; 2(5):102-112.

 

32. Hemmaty Nezhad M, Ramezanian M. R, Golizadeh M.H, Shafiee Sh, Ghazi Zahedi A. [The prediction of the success of Asian countries in terms of macroeconomic, political, social and cultural variables. Sports Journal Quarterly (in Persian)]. 2013; 5(11): 57-86.

 

33. Shariati Feizabadi A, Khabiri M. The Relationship between the Success of Countries at the Guangzhou 2010 Summer Asian Games and Demo economic Factors. World Conference on Psychology and Sociology 2012. Procardia social and Behavioral Sciences. (2013); 82: 369-374.

 

34. Leeds M., E Marikova Leeds. International Soccer Success and National Institution. Journal of Sports Economics (2009); 10(4): 369-390.

 

35. Krishna A., Haglund E. Why do some countries win more Olympic medals? Lessons for social mobility and poverty reduction. Economic and Political Weekly (2008); 43: 143-151.

 

36. Roberts G. (2006). Accounting for achievement in Athens: A count data analysis for nation Olympic performance / on – lines /. Retrieved January, 20- 2008. From: http:// web. Uric. CA/ econ/ ewe. 602. Pdf.

 

37. Bian, X. Predicting Olympic Medal Counts: The effects of Economic Development on Olympic performance: The Park Place Economist. (2003); 22: 37-44.

 

38. Kuper G.H., Sterken E. The Olympic Winter Games: Participation and performance since 1896, Mimeo. Department of Economics, University of Groningen.. (2001).

 

39. Bernard A., busses M.R. (2000). Who win the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals? Working Paper, Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=246937

 

40. Taghavi N. Demographic Principles. 11th Edition. Tabriz, Aydin Publications; 2016.

41. Imperials- Hagerman Socioeconomic predictors of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. (2011); 7 (1): 1-13.

42. Majidkhah. Sh. Study of Socioeconomic Factors Affecting the Performance of Disability Championship in Iran. Master Degree, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences. University of Tabriz. ; 2017.

43. Zobeiri H, Ebrahimi purfaiez S. [Inflation and Reduction of Social Capital of Iran. (in Persian)]. Journal of Planning and Budget. (2016); 19(4): 183-213.

44. Saryazdi A.H.GH. Analysis of the Influence of Influence on Social Issues Using the Systemic Approach. First National System Approach Conference, http://www.Researchgate.net/publication/272094020;2012.

45. Ranani M, Moaiedfar R. The cycles of the decline of Morality and Economy. Tehran, Tarheno; 2012.

46. Shiralizadeh. Z. Study of socio-economic factors affecting the performance of teams participating in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Master's Degree, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tabriz; 2016.

47. Aboonoory S, Snacandy S. [Estimation and Evaluation of Adequacy of Economic Inequality Indices Using Data Mining in Iran (in Persian)]. Journal of Economic Research.2005; 71:171-210.

48. Komijani A, Mohammadzadeh F. [The Influence of Influence on the Distribution of Income and Performance of Compensation Policies. (in Persian)]. Quarterly journal of research and economic policy. 2015; 22(69):5-24.