مروری بر مطالعات استعدادیابی ورزشی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رفسنجان

2 استاد تمام گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

فراگیر شدن ورزش و اهمیت جایگاه آن در مناسبات بین‌المللی توجه فراوانی را از ناحیة دولت‌ها متوجه این پدیده ساخته است. موفقیت کشورها در میادین بین‌المللی ورزشی علاوه‌بر تأثیرات اجتماعی و اقتصادی، نمادی از ثبات و توانمندی‌های همه‌جانبة آن کشورها محسوب می‌شود و یکی از علل سرمایه‌گذاری بالای کشورها در ورزش قهرمانی و حرفه‌ای، از این مورد نشأت می‌گیرد. فرایند کشف ورزشکاران مستعد، برای شرکت در برنامۀ تمرینی سازماندهی‌شده، از مهم‌ترین موضوعاتی است که امروزه در ورزش مطرح است. این مقاله با مروری بر مطالعات صورت‌گرفته در حوزۀ استعدادیابی ورزشی به چالش‌ها، تنگناها و کمبودهای موجود در مسیر استعدادیابی علمی اشاره دارد. جست‌وجوی مقالات در پایگاه‌های اطلاعاتی معتبر مانند  PubMedو Science Direct  و همچنین SCOPUS و Springer با جست‌وجوی کلمات استعدادیابی در ورزش، شاخص‌های استعدادیابی در ورزش (ذاتی و اکتسابی) و الگوهای استعدادیابی انجام و بررسی نهایی روی بیش از 60 مقاله صورت پذیرفت. مطالعات حوزۀ استعدادیابی ورزشی نوپا بوده و هنوز الگوی مشخص و همه‌جانبه‌ای که دربرگیرندۀ همۀ ابعاد باشد، ارائه نشده است. تعداد معدودی از الگوها تأثیر شاخص‌های ذاتی مانند ژنتیک را در شناسایی استعداد ورزشی مناسب می‌دانند؛ درحالی‌که بیشتر پژوهش‌ها الگوهایی که مبتنی‌بر ارزشیابی مهارت بعد از آموزش هستند، تعیین‌کننده می‌دانند. دستۀ شایان توجه دیگری از مطالعات همزمان با در نظر گرفتن شاخص‌های مهارتی، بر شاخص‌های حوزه‌های فیزیولوژیکی، آنتروپومتریکی، بیومکانیکی و روانی نیز تکیه دارند.

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