Document Type : Research Paper


1 Phd student, Department of sport management, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Sport management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman,Kerman,Iran


This study aimed to IT infrastructure futures research with emphasis on sports organizations and model presentation. The present study was conducted in a mixed method and in terms of data collection with phenomenological strategy and in-depth interview. The statistical population of the study was a familiar group of sports experts (technology and knowledge management activists, university professors, role-makers of technology and infrastructure of sports organizations) that reached a theoretical saturation point of view with the method of collecting snowball method with 15 experts. . The findings of in-depth, open-ended, core-selective interviewing approach to the technology infrastructure model in sports organizations that are key components of technology knowledge, network communication, data architecture and services, technology management, technology foundations, technology adaptation and speed. These infrastructures were considered, to ensure coding factors were maximized by two familiar coders using Max QDA version 12, and a coefficient of agreement of 81% was achieved. It seems that sports organizations should in the future Consider the identified variables to consider the optimal path of technology infrastructure, so the relevant model is likely to Can facilitate the infrastructure of technology startups in sports.


  1. Lotfi Yamchi, S., Seyyed Ameri M. H. Lotfi Yamchi Khadijeh. The Effect of Using Information Technology and Its Effectiveness in Sport Organizations (General Education Organization of West Azarbaijan Province). Basics of Sport, 2014, Year One, Number 2, 53-62, (in Persian).
  2. Sobhani Y, Honari H, Shahlaee J, Ahmadi AL. Relationship between Information Technology and Knowledge management in Sport federations (In Persian). Journal of sport management. 2013;5(2):55-73.
  3. Moradhasel, N., Mozaini, A. H.,Parayeb, S. H. The Effect of Information and Communication Technology on Business Space and Trade Facilitation. Journal of Economics and New Business, 2008, 39-63, (in Persian).
  4. Gogoi, H. The use of ICT in sports and physical education. Akinik publications, 2019, 117-130.
  5. Bagheri, Z., Shiaci, F., Maliki, M. Investigating the Role of Information and Communication Technology in the Development of Entrepreneurship Opportunities from the Viewpoints of the Faculty Members of Azad University and Payam Noor University. National Conference on Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Based Business Management, 2012, 23-68, (in Persian).
  6. Wiig KM. Where Did It Come From and Where Will It Go? Journal of Expert Systems with Applications. 1996;13(1):1-14.
  7. Madadi Y, Manian Y, Azgharzadeh E. Examines the role of information technology in effective knowledge-based organization case study College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University. (In Persian). Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research of Iran.2011; 41(4); 413-23.
  8. Izadi M, Sadeh E. The Role of Information Technology Empowerment in Establishing Knowledge Management (Study of Companies Based in Industrial Towns of Golestan Province) (In Persian). Journal of Government management. 2017;7(4):37-50.
  9. Simonsson M, Johnson P, editors. The IT organization modeling and assessment tool: Correlating IT governance maturity with the effect of IT. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Proceedings of the 41st Annual; 2008: IEEE.

10. Ross PF. Innovation adoption by organizations. Personnel Psychology. 1947;27(1); 21-27.

11. Hismanoğlu M. The integration of information and communication technology into current ELT coursebooks: a critical analysis. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 15:37-45.

12. Mantle P. The massive impact of IT on accounting firms. The accounting bullitn Aprill PP. 2006:4-5.

13. Dika, A. & Hamiti, M. Challenges of implementing the ethics through the use of information technologies in the university. Procedia social and behavioral sciences, 2011,15, 1110-1114.

14. Venkatesh V, Davis F. A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management science. 2000;46(2):186-204.

15. Tsang EW K. acquiring knowledge by forein partners from international journal ventures in a transition economy: learning-by-doing and learning myopia, strategic management journal, 2002. Vol. 23, No. 9.

16. Sepahand, R., Arefnejad M., Shariat Nejad A. Influence of Information Technology on Intellectual Capital and Knowledge Management Strategies with Adjustment Effect of Organizational Agility. Research on Organizational Resource Management, 2015 5(3), 71-96, (in Persian).

17. Madadi, y., Manian, A, Asgharizadeh, E.A. (2010). Examines the role of information technology in effective knowledge-based organization case study College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Tehran University. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research of Iran, 2010, 2(4), 413-423, (in Persian).

18. Stanescu M, Stoicescu M, Bejan R, Vasiliu A. Computer use in physical education and sports teaching. elearning & Software for Education. 2011.

19. Naghavi M. Relationship between barriers and educational needs with the use of ICT, IT in faculty members of physical education and sports science in education and research, (In Persian). Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University.2009.

20. Leron U, Hazzan O. IT in higher education: why is it so hard and why there is still hope after all? British Journal of Educational Technology. 2000;31(3):243-5.

21. Nassimbeni M. The information society in South Africa: from global origins to local vision. South African journal of libraries and information science. 2014;66(4).

22. Alemi F, Navaee N. Studies of Information and Communication Technology Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran Physical Education Organization, National Center for National Exercise Management and Development. 1, editor. Tehran: Green Apple; 2005.

23. Jakson R, Palmer R. Gide of sport management. Tehran: National Olympic Committee; 2003.

24. Mohammadi, S., Musharraf Javadi, B., Mozaffari, S. A. A. Relationship between Attitude Organizational Structure and Organizational Climate with Information Technology Publishing in Iran's Selected Organizations. Two Quarterly Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 2012, Second Year, 3, 16-34, (in Persian).

25. Jafarzadeh Zarandi, M. The Role of New Technologies (Internet, Computer and Mobile) in Developing Entrepreneurship Opportunities in Sport. Master's Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Science Research Branch.2013, (in Persian).

26. Chizari, M ., Movahed, H., & Lindner, J. R. The Role of Internet in Educational Activities of Graduate Students at Tehran University; College of Agriculture. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 2003, Ap8-12, 126-134.

27. Dessler, G. Organization Theory: Integrating Structure and Behavior.2nd ed, Prentice-Hall International,1986, 221-231.

28. Eder, L.B., & Igbaria, M. Determinants of intranet diffusion and infusion. Omega. The International Journal of Management Science, 2001, 29, 233-242.

29. Duncan, M., & Cambell, R.M. Internet users: how to reach them and how to integrate the internet into the marketing strategy of sport businesses. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 1999, 8 (2): 35-41.

30. Sansanwal D. Use of ICT In Teaching – Learning and Evaluation. In: Technology CIoE, editor. Retrieved on February 27; NCERT, New Delhi and State Institute of Education, Chandigarh. Educational Technology Lecture Series2009.

31. Mostafaei, H. Relationship between Information Technology and Organizational Structure of General Physical Education Institutions of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Master's Thesis, Gilan Hospital, 2009, 45-63, (in Persian).

32. Azizi, B., Koushki, A. M., Jalali Farahani, M. Relationship between Information Technology and Organizational Structure in the Ministry of Sport and Youth of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2013, Sport Management, 5(3), 161-174, (in Persian).

33. committee Co. “Annual report 2004”. 2007.

34. Siahpush S. Investigating the Relationship between Strategic Thinking and Applied Knowledge Management in the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance (In Persian). Tehran Branch: Islamic Azad University; 2014.

35. Ghazizadeh Fard SZ. Design and analyze a model to explain human obstacles in deploying and operating management information systems (with focus on Iranian governmental bodies). Systems Management: Tehran university; 1996.

36. Nasrollahi A. Examine the status of IT at the National Olympic Committee of Iran. Tehran: Tehran university; 2009.

37. Khosravizadeh E. Studying and designing the strategic plan of the Al-Mipak National Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran. PhD thesis: . Tehran: Tehran university; 2008.

38. Badri Azin Y. The study of sports gymnastics in Iran with the approach of comprehensive human resource development system in gymnastics sport of Iran. Tehran: Tehran university; 2006.

39. Kazemi M, Fayazi M, Merzadh M. Review of barriers to optimal use of IT in the insurance industry in Iran (in persian). Knowledge and Development. 2009;23:73-92. 2014. 308 p.

40. Ghasemi H, Keshkar S. Management Information System in sport. 1, editor. Tehran: Hatmi; 2014. 308 p.

41. Zmud RW. Diffusion of modern software practices: influence of centralization and formalization. Management science. 1982; 28(12):1421-31.

42. Mostafa Pour, Mostafa., Kashef, S. M., Mazaher Esmaeilpour, H., & Akbarzadeh, V. The Relationship between Knowledge Management and Information Technology Using Organizations Affiliated to Physical Education in Education. Journal of Physical Education, 2014, 2(1), 29-34, (in Persian).

43. Omrani M, Bahrami M, Shafiee M. Forecasting Development of Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure of the country in cyberspace with emphasis on scenario method (In Persian). Vision Government Management. 2015;6(1):133-47.

44. Hakim A, Rabiee A, Ghobadi E, Sakha B. The trend of IT development and its infrastructure (In Persian).  Third National Conference on Management and Humanities Research in Iran; Tehran: Managing Management Research Institute; 2016.

45. VAN den, H.J. Information resource management: stewards of data[J]. Information Systems Management, 1999, 16(1), 88-90.

46. Jiang, O. IT infrastructure construction: based on competitive advantage of electronic. science & technology of china,2006, 4( 4),305-313.

47. Peppard, J. Information management in the global enterprise: an organizing framework [J]. European Journal of Information Systems,1999, 8(2),77-94.

48. Broadbent, M ., Weill. P. Management by maxim: how business and IT managers can create IT infrastructure[J]. Sloan Management Review,1997, 38(3), 77-92.

49. Kettinger, W. J., Grover, V., Subanish, G., Strategic information systems revisited: a study in sustainability and performance[J]. MIS Quarterly,1994, 18(1), 31-58.

50. Barney, J.B. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage [J]. Journal of Management,1991, 17(1), 99-120.

51. Grant, R.M. The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: implication for strategic formulation [J]. California Management Review,1991, 33(3), 114-135.

52. Momeni H. Advanced management information system. 3, editor. Tehran: Sepehr; 2011. 302 p.

53. Tajmehr AH. The Basics of Information Technology. First, editor. Tehran: Atinegar; 2013. 384 p.

54. Bhatt GD, Emdad AF. An empirical examination of the relationship between information technology (IT) infrastructure, customer focus, and business advantages. Journal of Systems and Information Technology. 2010;12(1):4-16.

55. Byrd, T.A ., Turner, E.D. Measuring the flexibility of information technology infrastructure: Exploratory analysis of a construct[J]. Journal of Management Information Systems,2000, 17(1), 167-208.

56. Duncan, N. B. Capturing flexibility of information technology infrastructure: a study of resource characteristics and their measure[J]. Journal of Management Information Systems,1995, 12(2), 37-57.

57. Nwaokwa, B., & E, Okoli. Information of Communication Technology on the Influence Performance of Secretaries in Government Ministries in Nasarawa State, North-Central Nigeria. Research Journal of Information Technology,2012, 4(3), 93-97.

58. Washington. State of Washington Strategic Information Communication Technology. 2006.

59. Jalilvand J, Sharifian E. Information technology and Information management system in sport, (In Persian).  Second National Conference Physical Education and sport; Chabahar: International University of Chabahar; 2016.

60. Mordick R, Joel B, Claggette J. Information system for modern management. third, editor. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India,2001. 466 p.

61. Rossiter, J. R. “The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing”. International Journal of Research in Marketing. (2002). Vol. 19, Pp. 305–335.

  1. 62.  Hakimzadeh, F. Abdulmaleki J, Proposal Writing in Qualitative, Combined Studies, (2011). Sociological Publications Book.

63. Mao, H., Liu, S., Zhang, J. & Deng, Z. Information technology resource, knowledge management capability, and competitive advantage: The moderating role of resource commitment. International Journal of Information Management, 2016 36: 1062-107,

64. Chae, H., Koh, C. E., & Prybutok, V. R. Information technology capability and firm performance: contradictory findings and their possible causes. MISQuarterly, (2014). 38: 305–326.

65. Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Nevo, S. Jin, J. Wang, L., & Chow, W. S. IT capability and organizational performance: the roles of business process agility and environmental factors. European Journal of Information Systems, (2014).  23: 326–342.

66. Camy J, Robinson L. Managing olympic sport organizations: Human Kinetics Champaign, IL; 2007.

67. Kocak S. Computer attitudes and competencies in physical education and sport. International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport and Dance. 2003;39(1):49-52.

68. Farahani A, Zaree M, Sharifian E. Information technology and its relationship with academic performance and career future of physical education students (In Persian). Olympic. 2009; 46:102-12.

69. Kok Chi S. Olympic council of Malaysia. strategic, Doc. 2007:7.

70. Toohey K, Halbwirth S. Information and documentation in the Olympic Games. University Lectures on the Olympics, Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Olimpics (UAB) Online Available at http://olympicstudies uab es/lec/pdf/toohey pdf (accessed 26 March 2012).

71. Razaghi ME, Moosavi SJ, Safania AM. Successful knowledge management establishment in sport organizations with an emphasis on Iranian localization. International Journal of Sport Studies. 2013;3(1):30-7.

72. Moradi Chaleshtari J, Norozian Ghahfarokhi S, Moradi MR, Jamali Galeh M. Presentation of Information Technology Infrastructure Model and Knowledge Management Success in Islamic Azad University Physical Education Faculties (In Persian). Applied Research of Sport Management. 2015;3(12):35-51.

73. Jafarzadeh Kuchiki, Z., Abbasi, F., Hatamnejad, Y., Khalili, H. The Influence of Information Technology on the Organizational Structure of the General Directorate of Sports and Youth of East Azarbaijan, Considering the Resilience Economics Approach. the first National Conference of the Iranian Society of Sport Management, Allameh Tabatabaei University.2015,23-35, (in Persian).

74. Rosandich, T.J. Information Technology for Sports Management. The Sport Journal, ISSN:1543-9518, 2010, 13 (2), 203-223.