Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Student of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


Sport corruption is defined as any illegal and immoral move that practically attempts to distort the outcome of an athletic approach to advance its material goals. To encounter this phenomenon, the role of the media is vital where contaminated faces are revealed through the representation of corruptive activities. Representation is the production of meaning through conceptual and language frameworks. The continuous flow of media representation from the real world strongly influences the perceptions and actions of the audience, because it is assumed that these representations are the reality themselves. The aim of this study was to investigate the representation of sport corruption in Iran media space. In this study, documentary method was used with a content analysis approach. Reports and news of corruptive activities reflected in the official media were analyzed from 2007 to 2017. The findings revealed 12 types of corruption in 24 different sport fields. From the perspective of communication, a part of the fight against corruption can be assigned to the media; the media that either keeps track of the cases and examples, or gives those who complain about corruption a chance to talk. In fact, this media teaches audiences that corruption is unacceptable and must be fought; thus it mobilizes public opinion against corruption.


  1. Brunetti A, Weder B. “A free press is bad news for corruption" Journal of Public Economics. 2003; 87 (7-8),  p 1801–1824.
  2. Camaj L. The Media’s Role in Fighting Corruption, Media Effects on Governmental Accountability. First Published. 2013; N 2, p 21-42.
  3. Linstead S, ricky w. Organization Studies Special Issue on “The Dark Side of Organization” . 2010; 31 (8).
  4. Worthy B, McClean T. Freedom of Information and Corruption in Routledge Handbook of Political Corruption. 2015; pp.347–359.
  5. Mancini P, Mazzoni M, Cornia A, et al. Representations of corruption in the British, French and Italian press. International Journal of Press/Politics. 2016; 22: 67–91.
  6. Djankov S, LaPorta F. Lopez-de-Silanes, and A. Shleifer. The Regulation of Entry, Quarterly Journal of Economics. 2003; p 117-137.
  7. Stanig P. Regulation of speech and media coverage of corruption: An empirical analysis of the Mexican press. American Journal of Political Science, 2015; 59: 175–193.
  8. Numerato D."Corruption and Public Secrecy: An ethnography of football match‐fixing. Sage  Journal, First Published September 25. 2016; 64 (5): 699-717.
  9. Numerato D, Baglioni S. The dark side of social capital: An ethnography of sport governance. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2012; 47(5): 594–611.
  10. Bures R. Why sport is not immune to corruption.Transparency Inter-national Czech Republic.EPAS; 2008; /Source/Ressources/EPAS_INFO_Bures_en.pdf
  11. Gorse S, Chadwick S. Corruption in Sport: Implications for Sport Marketing. Coventry: The Centre for the International Business of Sport. 2009; No(9): p 312-361.
  12. Maennig, W. Corruption in International sports and sport management : Forms, tendencies , extent and countermeasures". European Sports Management Qaarterly, 2005; 5(2): 187-205.
  13. Numerato D. "The media and sports corruption: An outline of sociological understanding". International Journal of sport Communication. 2009; (2): p 261-273.
  14. Kumarjah C, Sarangi S. “Does Social Media Reduce Corruption?” Information Economics and Policy, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.infoecopol. 2017; 04.001.
  15. Mehdizadeh M. The content and professional review of the contents of seven non-governmental news agencies, Media Quarterly, Proceedings of the Month 63. Media Research and Research Center, 2005; No (3): P 126-127. [In Persian].
  16. Gorse S, Chadwick S. The prevalence of corruption in international sport: A statistical analysis. Coventry: Centre for the International Business of Sport. 2011; (15): 249-341


  1. Masters, A. Corruption in sport: From the playing field to the field of policy. Policy and Society. 2015; 34(2): 111-123.
  2. Paoli L., Donati A. The Sports Doping Market: Understanding Supply and Demand, and the Challenges of Their Control New York: Springer. 2013; P 21-57.
  3. Pitsch W, Emrich  E. The Frequency of Doping in Elite Sport - Results of a Replication Study. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 2012; 47(5): 559-580.
  4. Hill D. To fix or not to fix? How corruptors decide to fix football matches. Global Crime 2009a; 10(3): 157–177.
  5. Peurala J. Match-manipulation in football,the challenges faced in Finland. The International Sports Law Journal. 2013; 13(4): 268-286.
  6. Moriconi M. Corruption in Latin America, Stereotypes of Politicians and Their Implications for Affect and Perceived Justice. 2018; 9 (2): P 111-122.
  7. Holden J, Rodenberg R. The sports bribery act: a law and economics approach. 2015; 42 (2): P 421-453.
  8. Manning D. Common corruption of the mTOR signaling network in human tumors. 2008; 27 (10): p 43–51.
  9. Carpenter  K. Match-Fixing in London Olympic Year Scandals, Lessons & Policy Developments. Solicitor, LLP and LawInSport. 2012; P 40-45.
  10. Clausen J, Bayle E, Giauque D, Kaisa R, Grazia L, Siegfried N. Drivers of and Barriers to Professionalization in International Sport Federations. 2018; 25(2): p 212–49.
  11. DellaPorta D. Social capital, beliefs in government and political corruption. In: Pharr, SJ, Putnam, RD (eds) Disaffected Democracies: What’s Troubling the Trilateral Countries? 2000; p 202–228.
  12. Bayle E, Rayner H. Sociology of a scandal: the emergence of ‘FIFA gate’. 2016; P 593-611.
  13. Namazai M. Investigating the applications of representation theory in management accounting. Journal of Social and Human Sciences, Shiraz University, 2005; 22 (2): 148-162. [In Persian].
  14. Holmstrom  B."Moral Hazard and Observability", the Bell Journal of Economics, Spring, 1979; p 74-91.
  15. Jensen M, Meckling W."Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure", Journal of Financial Economics (October), 1976; p 305-360.
  16. Thomas M, Meagher P. A corruption primer: An overview of    concepts in the  corruption literature, University of Maryland. 2004; No. 04-03.
  17. Giulianotti R. Football: A Sociology of the Global Game. Cambridge: Polity Press. 1999; 25 (3): p 201-240.
  18. Hill D. How gambling corruptors fix football matches. European Sport Management Quarterly. 2009b; 9(4): p  411–432.
  19. Ashforth­ B, Anand V.The normalization of corruption in organization. Research in Organizational Behavior. 2003; 25 (3): P 1-52.