Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Management of Sports Management Department / Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / Kharazmi University / Tehran / Iran


study was to investigate the sociological predictors of fan motivation.
Methods: In the present study, after examining the research background, three sociological variables of individual values, team identity and ethnic identity were selected as predictors of motivation for Tabriz Tractorsazi football fans. The team quality variable was also considered as a moderator. For this purpose, based on the Cochran sampling method, 384 club fans voluntarily and online in the 2018-2019 season of the Premier League football completed the following questionnaires: Kaheli individual value (1983), Ahmad Baba Team Identity (2003), Fini Ethnic Identity (2016), Team Quality of Zhang et al. (1997) and Al-Tibetan motivation of fans (2004).
Results: The results of SEM showed that fan motivation was significantly affected by team quality β=0/345), individual values ​​(β=0/25), team identity (β=0/186) and ethnic identity (β=0/177). The results of the present study showed a very high motivation of the fans of the tractor team.
Conclusion: According to the results, club managers can relate to variables: team quality, use of star players and professional coaches, individual values by providing more security, team identity, distribution of clothes and flags, racial identity, use of cultural records, and Develop and implement programs and ethnic customs to increase the motivation of the fans.


Ahmad Abadi, N. (2016). The role of mass media in shaping identity. 40, 17-15. (In persian).
Ahmadi Bozdi, H., Hamidi, M., & Sajadi, N. (2013). Investigating the Role of Event Quality, Understanding Service Quality and Team Identity in Satisfaction of Tehran City Football Spectators. Physiology Research and Management in Sport, 10(2), 33-39. (In persian).
Al-Thibiti, Y. (2004). A scale development for sport fan motivation The Florida State University.
Baba, J. A. (2003). An examination of the influence of personal values and ethnic identity on Black students' sport consumption behavior. The Ohio State University.
Ahmed Baba, J. (2003). An examination of the influence of personal values and ethnic identity on black student’s sport consumption behavior. Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School of the Ohio State University
Beiginia, A., Sardari, A., & Ashori Zade, A. (2013). The Relationship between Individual and Organizational Values with Organizational Commitment of Al-Mahdi Aluminum Company in Hormozgan Province. Management Research in Iran, 17(2), 42-19.
Burlingame, J., & Blaschko, T. M. (2010). Assessment tools for recreational therapy and related fields. Idyll Arbor.
Chung, Y. N. (2015). The effects of fans’ motives on televised sports viewing in South Korea. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 5(4), 20-28.
Cooley, E., Brown-Iannuzzi, J. L., Agboh, D., Enjaian, B., Geyer, R., Lue, N., & Wu, S. (2018). The fluid perception of racial identity: The role of friendship groups. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9(1), 32-39.
Dale, B., van Iwaarden, J., van der Wiele, T., & Williams, R. (2005). Service improvement in a sports environment: a study of spectator attendance. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal.
DeSchriver, T. D., & Jensen, P. E. (2002). Determinants of spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests. Journal of Sport Management, 16(4), 311-330.
Dosti, M., Darvishi, A., & Khalili, A. (2015). Nationalism survey of Iranian national football fans. Sport Management and Development Biennial, 5(2), 48-32. (In persian)
Erin C, Jazmin L. B, Darren A, Brian E, Rachel G, Nicole L, Stephanie W. (2018). The Fluid Perception of Racial Identity: The Role of Friendship Groups. Social Psychological and Personality Science, Vol. 9(1) 32-39.
Gargone, D. (2016). A study of the fan motives for varying levels of team identity and team loyalty of college football fans. Peer Reviewed Proceedings, 132, 132-138.
Gau, L.-S., James, J. D., & Kim, J.-C. (2009). Effects of team identification on motives, behavior outcomes, and perceived service quality. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, 4(2-3), 76-90.
Gencer, R. T. (2015). Spectator motives and points of attachment: Gender differences in professional football. The Anthropologist, 19(1), 77-85.
Gharib Gorgani, S., & Hsan zadeh, M. (2015). Analytical Investigation of the Impact of Individual and Group Values on Social Values. First National Conference on Sustainable Development in Education and Psychology, Tehran. (In persian).
Ghofrani, M. (2015). Investigating the role of motivation on the team identity of football fans in Sistan and Baluchestan University. Sport Physiology & Management Investigations, 9(25), 118-109. (In persian).
Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.
Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: updated guidelines. Industrial management & data systems.
Hopwood, M. (2012). The Public Relations Role of Fans and Supporters' Groups. In Sport public relations and communication (pp. 139-152). Routledge.
James, J. D., & Ross, S. D. (2004). Comparing sport consumer motivations across multiple sports. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13(1).
Kahle, L. R. (1983). Social values and social change: Adaptation to life in America. Praeger Publishers.
Koo, J. J. (2009). Brand management strategy for Korean professional football teams: A model for understanding the relationships between team brand identity, fans’ identification with football teams, and team brand loyalty Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses].
Ko, Y. J., Kim, Y. K., Kim, M. K., and Lee, J. H. (2010). "The role of involvement and identification on event quality perceptions and satisfaction: A case of US Taekwondo Open." Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 22(1), 25-39
Lee, H.-J., & Lyu, J. (2016). Personal values as determinants of intentions to use self-service technology in retailing. Computers in Human Behavior, 60, 322-332.
Lock, D., Funk, D. C., Doyle, J. P., & McDonald, H. (2014). Examining the longitudinal structure, stability, and dimensional interrelationships of team identification. Journal of Sport Management, 28(2), 119-135.
Marshal Rio, J. motivation and excitement. Translated by Yahya Seyed Mohammadi. Tehran. Publishing editing. (2009). (In Persian).
Madrigal, R. (1995). Cognitive and affective determinants of fan satisfaction with sporting event attendance. Journal of leisure research, 27(3), 205-227.
Malchrowicz-Mosko, E., & Munsters, W. (2018). Sport tourism: A growth market considered from a cultural perspective. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 18(4), 25-38.
Morrison, K. A., Misener, K. E., & Mock, S. E. (2020). The influence of corporate social responsibility and team identification on spectator behavior in major junior hockey. Leisure sciences, 42(2), 133-151.
Mousavi, A. (2013). Relationship between team quality of fans and fan loyalty with their aggression Case study: Persepolis Esteghlal fans Kharazmi University. (In persian)
Nazari, A. (2012). A comparative study of the social composition and motivations of the fans of the Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Team with the fans of the popular Iranian teams Tabriz University. (In persian).
Neale, L., & Funk, D. (2006). Investigating motivation, attitudinal loyalty and attendance behaviour with fans of Australian football. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship.
Parry, K. D., Jones, I., & Wann, D. L. (2014). An examination of sport fandom in the United Kingdom: A comparative analysis of fan behaviors, socialization processes, and team identification. Journal of Sport Behavior, 37(3), 251-267.
Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research. Psychological bulletin, 108(3), 499.
Phinney, J. S. (1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of adolescent research, 7(2), 156-176.
Plunkett, J. W. (2008). Plunkett's Sports Industry Almanac 2009. Plunkett Research, Ltd.
Rabinz, A. (2015). Organizational Behavior, Translated by Ali Parsian and Mohammad Arabi. Office of Cultural Research.
Ranjbar, M. (2017). The Mediating Role of Perceived Quality in the Impact of Team Identity on Satisfaction and Behavioral Attitudes of Tabriz Tractor Football Team Spectators Kharazmi University. (In persian).
Rashid Lamir, A., Montazeri, A., & Feizi, S. (2018). The Role of Team Identification in Fans Loyalty of Iranian Football Industry. Applied Research of Sport Management, 7(1), 57-68. (In persian)
Reyhani, M., Eydi, H., Ramzani Nejad, R., Mirzai, A., & Abasi, H. (2014). Motivational support for fans of Iranian Premier League football clubs. Sports Management Studies, 20, 78-63. (In persian)
Richter, N. F., Sinkovics, R. R., Ringle, C. M., & Schlägel, C. (2016). A critical look at the use of SEM in international business research. International marketing review.
Sargeant, K., & Berkowitz, S. (2014). Subsidy of Rutgers athletics jumps 67.9% to $47 million. USA Today.
Shank, M. D., & Lyberger, M. R. (2014). Sports marketing: A strategic perspective. Routledge.
Shiue, G. (2009). Effects of Team Identification on Motives, Behavior Outcomes, and Perceived Service Quality. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, pp. 76-90.
Smith, E. J. (1991). Ethnic identity development: Toward the development of a theory within the context of majority/minority status. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(1), 181-188.
Taheri Kia, M., Asad Zadeh, A., & Elahi, A. (2018). Prediction of Attitudinal and Behavioral loyalty of Esteghlal and Persepolis Fans by Considering the Team Quality: A Case Study of Female Students in Tehran Universities. Research in Sport Management & Motor Behavior, 8(15), 8-1. (In persian).
Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge university press Cambridge.
Tajfel, H. E. (1978). Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of intergroup relations. Academic Press.
Transfermarkt. (2019).
Wakefield, K. L. (1995). The pervasive effects of social influence on sporting event attendance. Journal of sport and social issues, 19(4), 335-351.
Wann, D. L., Grieve, F. G., Zapalac, R., & Pease, D. G. (2008). Motivational profiles of sport fans of different sports.
Young Nam, C. (2015). The effects of fans' motives on televised sports viewing in South Korea. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4-5(1), 20-8.
Yoshida, M., Gordon, B., Nakazawa, M., & Biscaia, R. (2014). Conceptualization and measurement of fan engagement: Empirical evidence from a professional sport context. Journal of Sport Management, 28(4), 399-417.
Yusof, A., See, L. H., & Yusof, A. (2008). Spectator perceptions of physical facility and team quality: A study of a Malaysian super league soccer match. Research Journal of International Studies, 8(2), 132-140.
Zafarian, K., Mostahfezian, M., & Namazizade, M. (2016). Study and Prioritizing the Motivational Factors of Fans of Esfahan Zob Ahan Club. 3rd International Conference on Science and Sport, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr. (In persian).
Zahed-Babelan, A., & Moenikia, M. (2010). A study of simple and multiple relations between organizational health and faculty trust in female high schools. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1532-1536.
Zhang, J., Pease, D. G., Smith, D. W., & Lee, J. T. (1997). Factors affecting the decision making of spectators to attend minor league hockey games.