Document Type : Research Paper


1 university of Tehran

2 Associate Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, College of Farabi, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran


Psychological warfare is a phenomenon that many sports organizations face and its harmful effects are many; therefore, The purpose of this study is to design a psychological warfare management model in sports organizations. This research has a qualitative approach and the content analysis method and Glaser approach have been used as the research method. The method of data collection is the study of theoretical foundations and in-depth and open interviews with 18 experts and experts in the field of virtual education, including faculty members in the field of sports management, all managers in the field of sports organizations. Data were analyzed using continuous comparison method during three stages of open, axial and selective coding using MaxiCode software Pro version. Data analysis showed that 118 concepts, 23 sub-categories and 12 main categories are components of the psychological warfare management model in the form of 4 central codes (effective factors, main phenomenon, consequences and strategies). Effective factors include personal, occupational, communication and organizational factors. Among the components of soft warfare in the organization were the actions and behaviors of employees, the purpose of psychological warfare, psychological warfare techniques and levels of psychological warfare. The consequences of psychological warfare were examined at both individual and organizational levels, and at the end, solutions were proposed.