Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student in Sport Management, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Sanati Shahrood University, Shahrood, Iran
Professor Communication Texas A&M University, Texas, USA
The purpose of the present study was to identify and prioritize factors affecting the fan crisis in the Iranian Football Premier League. This study was a mix-method research work that was executed in the qualitative and quantitative steps. In the qualitative section, for in-depth interviews, targeted sampling method was used. After 21 interviews with experts, the data were coding based on the qualitative content analysis approach. In the quantitative section, 10 experts were selected based on judgmental sampling and the data were ranked by hierarchy analysis method. Based on the results of study, 18 identified factors affecting the fan crisis were placed in three branches, Content, Structure, and Context. Content branch factors in order of priority were: situation refereeing, corruption in football, fanatical behavior, communication management, ethnicity and racism, psychological characteristics, unprofessional behavior of stakeholders and demographic composition; Structural branch factors in order of priority were: competition management, safety, security, stadium health, public infrastructure, emergency-medical infrastructure; Context branch factors in order of priority were: cultural-social, media function, performance of the Security Council, disciplinary rules, team conditions and competition Political-economic and weather conditions. Therefore, suggested to the managers and officials of competitions and clubs to be aware of the identified factors in order to manage the crisis of advocacy more effectively.
- Reyhan. Football in Turkey from 1960 to Present Day: Unpreventable Violence. Journal of Education and Training Studies. 2019;7(9):32-8.
- Scholz P, Vespalec T. Inside Slavia´ s supporters: Fans who control the football matches in Czechia. 2019.
- Soyguden A, Schneider RC, Barut Y, Imamoglu O. Factors Affecting Stadium Attendance of Professional Football Club Supporters. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences. 2019;3(114).
- Darvishi A, Naseripoor M, Dosti M. Identifying ways to maintain and increase football fans of Persepolis Cultural and Sports Club. Sports Management. 2017;4(9):679-95.
- Tielietov OS, Letunovska NY, Pigul PV. Marketing tools and branding in professional football club activities. 2019.
- Çakmak Ö, Büyükergün A. Crisis Management in Sport Clubs. European Journal of Education Studies. 2018.
- Shah Mansouri E, Mozaffari SAA. Factors that cause sports crises and how to prevent them in the fields of software and hardware, software and media. Research in Sports Science. 2006;4(12):87-106.
- Boin A, Kuipers S. The crisis approach. Handbook of disaster research: Springer; 2018. p. 23-38.
- Luburić R. A Model of Crisis Prevention (Based on managing change, quality management and risk management). Journal of Central Banking Theory and Practice. 2019;8(2):33-49.
- Kriyantono R, McKenna B. Crisis response vs crisis cluster: A test of situational crisis communication theory on crisis with two crisis clusters in Indonesian Public Relations. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication. 2019;35(1).
- Singh NS, Aryasinghe S, Smith J, Khosla R, Say L, Blanchet K. A long way to go: a systematic review to assess the utilisation of sexual and reproductive health services during humanitarian crises. BMJ global health. 2018;3(2).
- Seiger MW. Best Measures in Crisis Communication: Specialized: Roundtable Process;Translator: Dashtiyan, S. M. . Quarterly Journal of Crisis Prevention and Management Knowledge. 2013;3(2):201-2011. (In Persian).
- Kehlenbrink S, Smith J, Ansbro É, Fuhr DC, Cheung A, Ratnayake R, et al. The burden of diabetes and use of diabetes care in humanitarian crises in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2019;7(8):638-47.
- Avraham E. Nation branding and marketing strategies for combatting tourism crises and stereotypes toward destinations. Journal of Business Research. 2018.
- Mason A, Spencer EA, Macek K, Smith A, Potter S. Using the Theory of Emotional Stakeholders to Experimentally Test the Influence of Proxy Communicators about Organizational Crises in Digital News Reports. International Journal of Business and Social Science. 2019;10(4).
- Mehrabiyan S, Hasannejad M, Barzegari Nejad A. Ranking of factors affecting crisis management in sports venues based on AHP model. first national conference on applied studies in sports science (In Persian). 2016.
- Yavari Gohar F, Mansouri Moayad F. Crisis management in the tourism industry. Tourism Management Studies. 2017;12(40):21-40.
- Zhang J, editor New Characteristics of Crisis Communication in the Sports Events under the Era of Media Convergence. 2018 International Conference on Management and Education, Humanities and Social Sciences (MEHSS 2018); 2018: Atlantis Press.
- Yusuf AO, Akinwusi AT, Morakinyo E. EXAMINING THE LEVEL OF STADIUM SECURITY AND SAFETY DURING NIGERIA PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE MATCHES. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science. 2020.
- Glenesk J, Strang L, Disley E. How can crowd behaviour modelling be used to prevent and respond to violence and antisocial behaviour at Qatar 2022?: RAND; 2018.
- Taylor J, Strang L, Disley E. Early Reflections on the Approach to Preventing and Responding to Violent and Antisocial Behavior at the 2018 World Cup in Russia: RAND; 2018.
- Arnold R, Veth KM. Racism and Russian Football Supporters’ Culture: A Case for Concern? Problems of Post-Communism. 2018;65(2):88-100.
- Tasić J. Legal Provisions on Violence in Sports and Disputable Issues in Court Practice. FACTA UNIVERSITATIS-Law and Politics. 2018;16(3):225-36.
- Donyaee H, Hosseini SE, Mohammadi N. Identify the factors influencing money laundering in sports. Sports Management Studies. 2019;11(55):17-34. (In Persian).
- Shafiee S, Devband M, Alimardani M. The role of the police in football stadiums and the ways in which police forces deal with spectators. Social Security Quarterly. 2017;9(2): 151-70. (In Persian).
.26. Farahani A, Keshavarz L, Marvi Esfahani N. Analysis of crisis factors in public sports. New Trends in Sport Management. 2018;6(21):51-67. (In Persian).
- Shirzadi A. Investigating the factors causing organizational silence based on the three-pronged model and its relationship with productivity in the staff of sports and youth departments of West Azerbaijan province. International Conference on New Research Achievements in Sports Science and Physical Education in Iran and the Islamic World. 2019:1-18.
- Ghanbari H, Shetab Bushehri N, Shafi Nia P, Mehr Alizadeh Y. Pathology of physical education and school sports using the three-pronged model. Research in Educational (University). 2018;6(15).
- Mobini Dehkordi A, Haranaki K. Investigating the effect of the three-pronged model on social innovation (a case study of a company affiliated with the automotive industry). Journal of Innovation Management. 2014;3(4).
- Webb T, Dicks M, Brown DJ, O’Gorman J. An exploration of young professional football players’ perceptions of the talent development process in England. Sport Management Review. 2020;23(3).
- Thomas DR. Feedback from research participants: are member checks useful in qualitative research? Qualitative Research in Psychology. 2017;14(1).
- Koerber D, Zabara N. Preventing damage: The psychology of crisis communication buffers in organized sports. Public Relations Review. 2017;43(1):193-200.
- Bashiru S, Opoku E. Referee bias and its impact on low fans attendance at stadiums: standpoints from Ghana. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports and Health. 2017;4(5):139-47.
- Albanese A, Baert S, Verstraeten O. Twelve eyes see more than eight. Referee bias and the introduction of additional assistant referees in soccer. Plos one. 2020;15(2):e0227758.
- Gholami Torksloyeh S, Heydarinejad S. Investigating the views of the fans of Ahvaz football teams regarding the factors affecting the occurrence of aggression. Sports Management Studies. 2015;28:121-34. (In Persian).
- Ramezani Nejad R, Rahmati MM, Hemmatinejad M, Azadan M. Factor analysis of the variables of aggression in spectators from the perspective of Iranian football referees Sports Management Studies. 2012;13:201-14. (In Persian).
- Chiweshe MK. Money, football and politics: Asiagate and the scourge of match-fixing in Zimbabwe. Review of Nationalities. 2019;9(1):111-21.
- Manoli AE, Antonopoulos GA, Bairner A. The inevitability of corruption in Greek football. Soccer & society. 2019;20(2):199-215.
- Abbaszadeh M, Saadati M, Kabiri A, Taha A. Sociological study of the factors affecting aggression among football spectators. Social Security Quarterly. 2017;9(4): 35-70. (In Persian).
- Khaghani Avar F, Shanvaz B. A Study of Verbal and Virtual Violence of Football Spectators in Iran (Causes and Strategies). Quarterly Journal of Physical Education and Sports Sciences. 2016;1(4): 40-54. (In Persian). .
- Firdaus IY, Trilia T. Study of Phenomenology: the Aggressive Behavior of Soccer Club Supporter. Indonesian Journal of Global Health Research. 2020;2(1):83-102.
- Voorhees E. Mitigating Risk: A Delphi Study Identifying Competencies in Sport and Event Security Management. 2018.
- Hemmatinejad M, Taylor T, Gholizadeh MH, Faraji R. Prioritization of factors affecting the security of Iranian football stadiums using hierarchical analysis method. Sport Management,. 2016;8(1):69-85. (In Persian).
- Yanovskaya Y. Lifestyle of football fans: psychological space features. Fundamental and applied researches in practice of leading scientific schools. 2019;32(2):36-40.
- Al-Jubouri ZHF, Al-Janabi SAA, Dweghir MA, Saad O, Ahmed FA. The psychology of sports intolerance and its relation to the low level of motivation for football fans. 2019.
- Shafiee S, Dastum S, Abdoli H, Afroozeh H. Presenting a process-oriented model of aggression and its control framework in football spectators. New Trends in Sport Management. 2016;4(14):51-67. (In Persian).
- Strang L, Baker G, Pollard J, Hofman J. Violent and antisocial behaviours at football events and factors associated with these behaviours: A rapid evidence assessment. 2018.
- Piepiora P, Sikorski W, Supiński J. Security measures used in Poland during football matches. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2019;9(10):172-88.
- Ruppé W, Sirost O, Durand C, Dermit N. Measuring the violence and incivility of players in professional sport and the disciplinary bodies’ management: statistical analysis of French professional football. Sport in Society. 2020:1-23.