Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D Student of Sport Management, Faculty of physical education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of physical education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, Faculty of physical education, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Today, fierce competition between businesses in any industry shows the need to design appropriate business models, and the sports and fitness industry is no exception. The aim of this study was to design a process business pattern of women's fitness clubs. The research was exploratory and in terms of goal, it was a practical that was implemented with two qualitative strategies, meta-synthesis and thematic analysis. The statistical population of meta-synthesis was studies in the period 1990 to 2020. To thematic analysis, 11 sports business experts were selected for in-depth semi-structured interviews by snowball method. By analyzing the two-stage data, a large number of open codes were identified. Finally, 125 open codes, 54 sub-themes and 21 main themes appeared. The quality of the two-stage findings was confirmed by calculating the coding agreement coefficient. Emerging concepts were categorized in 7 scope including Product design; Pre-run; Definition of customers; Determining and supplying resources; Activation and implementation; Control and performance; and Technology support. Each scope referring to specific processes in the business pattern. In a linear logic, these processes are one behind the other, but in the above pattern, all processes are constantly reviewed over and over again so that the business can produce and offer its product in the best possible way. In general, the proposed process pattern is a dynamic model that has identified all the processes and conditions necessary for review, and understanding and implementing it can ensure the evolution of the business model of women's fitness clubs.


  1. Hassanzadeh M. Extracting business model for women's sports clubs in Tehran province. Tehran. (In Persian): Shahed University; 2012.
  2. Afuah A. Business models: A strategic management approach: McGraw-Hill/Irwin; 2004.
  3. Magretta J. Why business models matter. Harvard Business School Boston, MA; 2002.
  4. Niroomand P, Ranjbar M, Aeraby SM, Hajisadeghi B. A Framework for Business Model Design. Journal of Information Technology Management. 2013;5(4):267-84. (In Persian).
  5. Osterwalder A. The business model ontology a proposition in a design science approach: University of Lausanne; 2004.
  6. Tsai M-H, Lin Y-D, Su Y-H. A grounded theory study on the business model structure of Google. International journal of electronic business management. 2011;9(3):231-42.
  7. Wirtz BW, Pistoia A, Ullrich S, Göttel V. Business models: Origin, development and future research perspectives. Long range planning. 2016;49(1):36-54.
  8. Osterwalder A, Pigneur Y, Tucci CL. Clarifying business models: Origins, present, and future of the concept. Communications of the association for Information Systems. 2005;16(1):1-25.
  9. Ghasemi H, Tojari F, Kashker S. Media activities in sports. Tehran. (In Persian): Bamdad Ketab; 2015.
  10. Callejo MB, Forcadell FJ. Real Madrid football club: A new model of business organization for sports clubs in Spain. Global Business and Organizational Excellence. 2006;26(1):51-64.
  11. McIlroy M. Creating a sustainable, competitive advantage within a ‘winning’football academy model in South Africa: University of Pretoria; 2011.
  12. Khanifar H, Moslemi N. Principles and foundations of qualitative research methods. Tehran. (In Persian): Negah Danesh; 2017.
  13. Sandelowski M, Barroso J. Handbook for Synthesizing Qualitative Research. illustrated ed: Springer Publishing Company; 2007.
  14. Glynn L. A critical appraisal tool for library and information research. Library Hi Tech. 2006;24(3):387 -99.
  15. Gholami N. Designing a sports business model with an entrepreneurial approach. Tehran. (In Persian): Kharazmi University; 2017.
  16. Antoldi F, Capelletti E, Capelli C. Reconsidering the multi-sports club business model: designing effective new strategies in the face of environmental changes. Measuring Business Excellence. 2016;20(4):10-27.
  17. Bradbury T, Mitchell R, Thorn K. Moving forward: business model solutions for amateur sport clubs. Managing Sport and Leisure. 2020:1-17.
  18. Lozano JAS, Mateos ME, Remon AC, Navarro JEJ-B. Spanish sport facilities: differences between public and private, and according to their business model (Las instalaciones deportivas en España: diferencias entre públicas y privadas, y según su modelo de negocio). Retos. 2021(39):38-45.
  19. In S. Designing Processes for Ubiquitous-based Sport Business Model. Journal of Information Technology Services. 2011;10(4):47-65.
  20. Chhabria JS. Business model development for a sports technology venture of motion sensing wearables: The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; 2016.
  21. Radman PA, Cicin-Sain D, Blazevic T. New business model in the growing e-sports industry. Poslovna izvrsnost: znanstveni časopis za promicanje kulture kvalitete i poslovne izvrsnosti. 2017;11(2):121-31.
  22. Demil B, Lecocq X. Business model evolution: in search of dynamic consistency. Long range planning. 2010;43(2-3):227-46.