Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Of sport management, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

3 M.A., Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the Covid 19 pandemic and the absence of spectators on the results of popular football teams in the Persian Gulf Premier League. The results of Esteghlal, Perspolis, Sepahan, Tractor, Foolad FC clubs at the first round robin stage of nineteenth season (with spectators) were compared with their results at the first round robin stage of twenty season (without spectators) using a t-test. The analysis of the findings showed that the results of the host teams without spectators were not significantly different from the match with presence of spectators at the stadiums. This lack of significance was observed in the number of home wins, the number of host teams’ goals scored, and the number of red cards shown to the host teams. However, there was a significant difference in the number of yellow card shown to the host teams. Although spectators always play an important role in the success of the host teams, strengthening the tactical and technical abilities of players and teams, managing the emotions and stress of players, and above all knowing the atmosphere and competitive environment and getting players used to spectators’ presence at the stadiums have caused the teams and players to acquire the necessary skills to control spectator pressure. Therefore, the effect of spectator presence on the results and performance of teams has been greatly diminished. 


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