Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The purpose of study is to construct and validate the image tool of the Iranian athlete brand.
Methods: The research method was descriptive and a survey. The statistical population consisted of students of sport sciences in Isfahan Universitys. 302 participants answered the questionnaire. They selected by random sampling method. The instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire. There were 49 items. Face and content validity were examined. Cronbach's alpha and exploratory analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to examine the construct validity.  
Results: Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the athlete's brand image scale has 49 explicit factors, 12 hidden second-level and 4 hidden third-level factors. The personal image of athlete brand includes, attractiveness appearance (4 items) and personal life (5 items), the social image of athlete brand includes, myth (4 items), social attractiveness (5 items), athlete relationship (3 items) and social responsibility (7 items) , the cultural image of athlete brand includes, protocol (3 items) and religion (3 items) and sport image of athlete brand includes, body fitness (3 items), sport success (3 items), athlete expertise (5 items) and racing style (6 items). Cronbach's alpha reliability for the 12 components ranged from 0/74 to 0/91. The   results show goodness of fit the athlete's brand image model.
Conclusion: The cultural, social and personal aspects of the athlete, along with the sporting aspect, create a good image of the Iranian athlete's brand. Future researchers can be used of this tool to determine the brand image characteristics of Iranian athletes.


Bradic, L. (2015). Celebrity Endorsements on Social Media Are Driving Sales and Winning Over Fans     Social Media Week. [online] Social Media Week. Available via:                       
Khabiri, M. Tojari, F. (2011). Sport & Event Marketing. Tehran, Samt, 197. (in Persian).
Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Mei, W. (2021). The Effect of Factor and Source Credibility of NBA Athlete Celebrity’s Endorsement Toward Chinese Customers’ Brand Perception and Brand Loyalty: A Case of Kobe Bryant in’s Advertisement on Weibo. Bangkok University.
Momeni, M., Faal Ghayoumi, A. .(2015). Statistical Analysis Using SPSS, Tehran, Author, Eighth Edition. (in Persian).
Rai, J.S., Yousaf, A., Itani, M.N. and Singh, A. (2021). Sports celebrity personality and purchase intention: the role of endorser-brand congruence, brand credibility and brand image transfer. Sport, Business and Management,
Swartz.H.& Gazley,A.(2015). The Effect of Social Media Use by Athletes on Brand Image. AM 2015-The Magic in Marketing Conference Programme. http://programme. 2015.
Tojari, F. & et all. (2015). Brands and branding. Isfahan, sana, 70. (In Persian).
Tojari, F. Aboodarda, Z. (2013). Consumer behavior in sport and events: marketing action. Tehran:Hatmi,125.(in Persian).