Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc of Physical Education, Marivan Physical Education Instructor, Marivan, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Sport Management, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the methods of content and environment happiness of students' physical activities in Kurdistan province. The statistical population of this study consisted of all secondary school students and physical education teachers in Kurdistan province. 400 questionnaires were collected. A researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 40 items was used to collect data. It consisted of 6 components: teacher, student, school management, sport environment, parenting, and planning and content. Questionnaires were purposively distributed among physical education teachers and randomly among students. Descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-sample t test and Friedman test were used for data analysis. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.96. The results of factor analysis of the items accounted for 68.312% of the total variance. Regarding the construct validity, based on the relationships and T-value, all items had significant relationships with the factors and could be good predictors of their own factors. The indices of X2 / df ratio (4.91), RMSEA = 0.099, NNFI = 0.96, CFI = 0.98 and GFI = 0.98 confirmed the model fit. The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.96. The research method was descriptive-correlation and the study was conducted as a field. Based on the results, the ‘parenting’ component ranked first among the four research groups. There were no differences among the research groups in the second, third and sixth ranks. In the ‘school management’ component, female teachers ranked fifth, and they ranked third in the ‘planning and content’ component. It is suggested that education managers lay the groundwork for students’ happiness and joy in physical education courses to increase their physical activity.


  1. Joun M, Badri Azin Y, Jaafari S & Akbari B. A Comparison of the Perspective of Educators and Students on Social Support Behavior and its Components and the Effectiveness of Physical Education Classes. Physiology and Management Research in Sport, 2018; 10(2): 83-99. (In Persian)
  2. Layne TE, Hastie PA. Analysis of teaching physical education to secondgrade students using sport education. Sport Education Journal, 2014; 28(7): 1-15.
  3. Coulter M, McGrane B & Woods C. PE should be an integral part of each school day’: parents’ and their children’s attitudes towards primary physical education. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 2019; 1-17.
  4. Røset L, Green K & Thurston M. Norwegian youngsters’ perceptions of physical education: exploring the implications for mental health. Sport, Education and Society, 2019; 1-13.
  5. Khodadadi MR, Najde rahmati B & Friedafihi M. The Relationship between Sport Participation Motivation, Vitality, and Happiness with Academic Achievement in Bonab County High School Male Students. Research in Educational Sport, 2017; 13:155-174. (In Persian)
  6. Domville M , Watson PM, Richardson D & Fisher Graves LE. Children’s perceptions of factors that influence PE enjoyment: a qualitative investigation. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 2018; 1-13.
  7. Wood C, Hall K. Physical education or playtime: which is more effective at promoting physical activity in primary school children? BMC Research Notes, 2015; 8(1): 12- 28.
  8. Hu L, Motl RW, McAuley E, & Konopack JF. Effects of SelfEfficacy on Physical Activity Enjoyment in College-Aged Women. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2007; 14(2): 92–96.
  9. Kioslosky JL. Happiness, How are environment affects our well-being and performance. (2002), From:http://www.clearing house 292-asp.
  10. Majidi Ch, Kashif M, Ahadi B & Rasool Azar G. Factors Related to Juicy and Beautifying Sports Facilities on Accommodation Students' Attitude to Physical Activity. Applied Research in Sport Management, 2014, 3: 29-39. (In Persian)
  11. Hezbari K, Ramadaninejad R & Hematinejad MA. Evaluating the Priority of Physical Education Lesson Among Other Middle School Courses. Sport Management and Development bi-annual, 2013; 2(3): 73-89. (In Persian)
  12. Ramazani Nejad R, Hemmati Nejad MA & Hemmati Nejad M. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy of Teacher Education and Training Classroom Management Methods. Research in Sport Science, 2011; 11: 13-26. (In Persian)
  13. Ramazani Nejad R, Hemmati Nejad MA, Mohebbi H & Niazi M. Assessing the educational needs of physical education and high school sports. Research in Sport Science, 2009; 23: 13-30. (In Persian)
  14. Wolk S. Joy in School, The Positive Class room, 2008; 66(1): 8-15.
  15. Yekhanizad A, Golmohammadnejad Bahrami GR & Soleimanezhad A. The Effectiveness of Positive Thinking Skills Training on Students' Psychological and Happiness Capital. 2018; 5(4): 135-148. (In Persian)
  16. Myers DG. The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People. American Psychologist, 2000; 55 (1): 56-67.
  17. Peterson C. The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 2000; 55 (1): 44-55.
  18. Kalaja S, Jaakkola T, Liukkonen J, Watt A. The Role of Gender, Enjoyment, Perceived Physical Activity Competence, and Fundamental Movement Skills as Correlates of the Physical Activity Engagement of Finnish Physical Education Students, Scandinavian sport studies forum, 2010;1: 69–87.
  19. McCarthy PJ, Jones MV, Clark-Carter D. Understanding enjoyment in youth sport: A developmental perspective. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008;9: 142–156.
  20. Macdonald DJ. The role of enjoyment, motivational climate, and coach training in promoting the positive development of young athletes, A thesis submitted to the School of Kinesiology and Health Studies in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 2010;88-93.
  21. Asifi AA, Ghanbarpour Nosrati, A. The role of the family in institutionalizing physical activity in children. Physiology Research and Management in Sport, 2018; 10(1): 55-65. (In Persian)
  22. Beth A, Lewis DM, Williams AF. Self-efficacy versus perceived enjoyment as predictors of physical activity behavior. Psychology & Health, 2015; 18.
  23. Hu L, Cheng S, Lu J, Zhu L, Chen L. Self-Efficacy Manipulation Influences Physical Activity Enjoyment in Chinese Adolescents. Human Kinetics Journals, 2015.
  24. Kodadadi MR, Najdrahmati B, Farid Fatih M. The Relationship between Sport Participation Motivation, Vitality, and Happiness with Academic Achievement in Bonab County High School Male Students. Research in Educational Sport, 2017; 13: 155-174. (In Persian)
  25. DarogehArafi N, Bhralolom H, HosseiniNia R. The Relationship between Parent Participation with Perceived Competence and the Fun of Young Martial Artists. Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior Research, 2016; 23: 131-141. (In Persian)
  26. Golami S, Husseinchari M. Predicting students' happiness based on their perceptions of teacher expectations, teacher interaction, and self-efficacy. Journal of Teaching and Learning Studies, 2011; 3(1): 87-109. (In Persian)
  27. Aezidi S, Hashemi S, Barzamini L. Investigating the Factors Affecting School Cheerfulness from the Perspective of Students and School Principals: Emphasizing on Cultural Development. Journal of Socio-Cultural Development Studies, 2011; 1: 91-118. (In Persian)
  28. Manouchehri J, Tajari F, Sami S. Structural Model of the Relationship between Coaching Self-efficacy, Physical Self-efficacy, and Physical Activity Functioning of Students in Physical Education Course. Sport Management, 2016; 8(1): 103-120. (In Persian)
  29. Salehiomran A, Abedinibeltrak M. The Relationship between Happiness and Academic Achievement of Students in Educational Spaces of Mazandaran Province with Emphasis on the Role of Educational Planning. Journal of Educational Planning Studies, 2018; 7(13): 121-145. (In Persian)
  30. HemmatiAfif A, Alahi M, Aftakari M, HajiHassani M. Designing and Developing Strategies for Developing Peak Sport Based on Model SWOT. Studies of physical education and sports science, 2017; 2(4): 38-55. (In Persian)
  31. Shuja K, Farahani A & Alimardani M. Comparison of Perceptions of Parents, Students, Teachers, and Principals on the Position of Education in Schools. Sport Managment, 2017;9(1): 37-54. (In Persian)
  32. Aflakifard H, Bazm G. Influencing the educational environment on students' happiness and learning. Journal of New Achievements in Humanities Studies, 2018; 1 (2). (In Persian)
  33. Cleland V, Ball K, Hume C, Timperio A, Abbe C, King AC, Crawford D. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. 2010; 70(12): 2011-2018.
  34. Abdimogadm S, Ramadannejad R, Pursultanizarndi H. A Comparison of the Educational Position of the Training Course from the Perspectives of Principals, Teachers, Parents, and High School Students. Physiology Research and Management in Sport, 2018; 10 (1): 129-143. (In Persian)
  35. Dana A, Hamzasbzi A, Gozalzada A. The Impact of Sport Planning on Social and Adaptive Performance of High School Girls. Sport Management Studies. 2017; 42: 73-90. (In Persian)
  36. Nastaranbrojani A, Nastaranbrojani A, Honari H. Identifying the Problems of Isfahan Schools of Physical Education and Comparing the Principles of Isfahan Schools of Education, Experts and Teachers. New Approaches to Sport Management, 2018; 4 (14): 83-94. (In Persian)
  37. Kishtidar M, Shje K, Rohibahloli ahmadi S, Fatemizadeh S. Identifying Experts 'Mental Patterns of Students' Decline in Physical Activity at School (Using Q Methodology). Applied Research in Sport Management, 2018; 1(25): 11-22. (In Persian)
  38. Taslimi Z, Baboie H. Establishing a Coordinated and Focused Evaluation of School Education Course: A Qualitative Study. Research in Educational Sport, 2018; 14: 45-66. (In Persian)
  39. Hooman HA, Structural Equation Modeling Using LISREL Software. 6nd ed Tehran, Samt; 2015. (In Persian)
  40. Kalantari KH, Structural Equation Modeling in Socio-Economic Research. Tehran, Saba culture; 2010. (In Persian)
  41. Shirani M, Nadi MA. Structural Patterns of the Relationship between Knowledge Strategies and Individual and Organizational Learning Capacity among Physical Education Teachers. Sport Management Studies, 2016; 36:113-130. (In Persian)
  42. Nadrianjahromi M, Alimohammadi R, Hojjatmogadm M. Investigating the Factors Affecting the Discipline of Physical Education Classes in Schools from the Perspective of Physical Education Teachers. Sport Management Studies, 2013; 26: 59-70. (In Persian)
  43. Qasemi A, Kadivar P, Krametti H, Arabzada M. Validity and Reliability of Teacher Self-efficacy Questionnaire. Research in classroom and virtual learning, 2018; 2 (22): 81-94. (In Persian)
  44. Saffari M, & Qareh MA. Identifying and Ranking Environmental Factors Affecting the Fun of Iranian Leisure Sports. Sport Management, 2016; 8(1): 51-68. (In Persian)
  45. Hosseininia R, Khodaverdi F, Daroukeh Arefi N. The Influence of Sport Friendship Quality on the Fun and Commitment of Sporting Youth Soccer. Studies in Sport Psychology, 2014; 10: 113-126. (In Persian)
  46. Yousefi S & Badri Azarine Y. Determining the Conceptual and Qualitative Components of Elementary School Wall Paintings and Writings in Teaching and Motivating Students to Mobility and Exercise. Sport Management Studies, 2018;49: 95-114. (In Persian)
  47. Jafari P, Talib Zadeh F. Providing a Model for Joy and Happiness in Tehran's Elementary Schools. Educational Leadership and Management Journal of Islamic Azad University of Garmsar Branch, 2010; 4(4): 9-32. (In Persian)
  48. Jafari A, Siyadat A, Bahadorn N. Investigating Factors Affecting School Vitality, New Educational Thoughts, 2008; 1 & 2: 31-44. (In Persian)
  49. Hosseinpour A & Kashif MM. Comparison of general health of active and inactive male students of Urmia secondary schools, Studies in Sport Psychology, 2012; 1: 1-6. (In Persian)
  50.  Afshani AR. Investigation of social vitality among Yazdian youth and its related factors. Journal of Social Analysis, 2013; 4/64: 3-27. (In Persian)