Document Type : Research Paper
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Professor, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
As sport becomes popular and pervasive, politicians and governments are more involved in sport. The aim of this study was to explain and analyze reasons and consequences of politicians’ entrance into Iran sport. The whole process of this study included two steps: the first step: qualitative research, grounded theory type (using interviews and a review of articles and documents); the second step: quantitative research, descriptive-analytical type (using Delphi and AHP methods). The statistical population included all managers who formerly worked at the boards of directors of the Ministry of Sport and Youth (formerly known as Physical Education Organization), National Olympic Committee, sport federations and academic elites who at least were general managers in Sport and Youth office of a province. In the qualitative phase, the viewpoints of 18 subjects were used in 22 interviews (some subjects were interviewed more than once) and when it reached theoretical saturation, the data collection process ended. After the end of the first step, 56 variables were identified. Results showed that fame and elective motivations were the most important reasons why the politicians entered into Iran sport from elites’ viewpoints. Also, the development of infrastructures and increasing chaos in sport were the most important positive and negative consequences of the politicians’ entrance into Iran sport arena.
- Akhavankazemi M. Sport and international politics. Olympic ((In Persian). 1999;13(2):15-32.
- Houlihan B. Public sector sport policy: Developing a framework for analysis. International review for the sociology of sport. 2005;40(2):163-85.
- Coakley JJ, Pike E. Sport in society: Issues and controversies. 2009.
- Mangan J. The European Sports History Review: Militarism, Sport, Europe-War Without Weapons, Volume 5: Taylor & Francis; 2003.
- Hartmann D. Theorizing sport as social intervention: A view from the grassroots. Quest. 2003;55(2):118-40.
- Hartmann D, Depro B. Rethinking sports-based community crime prevention: A preliminary analysis of the relationship between midnight basketball and urban crime rates. Journal of sport and social issues. 2006; 30(2): 96-180.
- Mitchell N, Ennis LA. Encyclopedia of title IX and sports: Greenwood Publishing Group; 2007.
- Allison L. The global politics of sport: The role of global institutions in sport: Psychology Press; 2005.
- Brownell S. Beijing's games: What the Olympics mean to China: Rowman & Littlefield; 2008.
- Delaney KJ, Eckstein R. The devil is in the details: Neutralizing critical studies of publicly subsidized stadiums. Critical Sociology. 2003;29(2):189-210.
- Silk M, Falcous M. One day in September and a week in February: Mobilizing American (sporting) nationalisms. Sociology of Sport Journal. 2005;22(4):447-71.
- Smith JM, Ingham AG. On the waterfront: Retrospectives on the relationship between sport and communities. Sociology of sport journal. 2003;20(3):252-74.
- Messner MA. The masculinity of the governator: Muscle and compassion in American politics. Gender & society. 2007;21(4):461-80.
- Harvey J, Lévesque M, Donnelly P. Sport volunteerism and social capital. Sociology of sport journal. 2007;24(2):206-23.
- Houlihan B. Sport, policy and politics: A comparative analysis: Routledge; 2002.
- Coakley J, Dunning E. Handbook of sports studies: Sage; 2000.
- Bainvel S. Sport and Politics: A study of the relationship between International Politics. 2005.
- Taylor T. Sport and international relations: a case of mutual neglect. The politics of sport. 1986:27-48.
- Bergsgard NA, Rommetvedt H. Sport and politics: the case of Norway. International review for the sociology of sport 2006; 41(1): 7-27.
- Dousti M, Goodarzi M, Asadi H, Khabiri M. Sport policy in Iran. International journal of sport policy and politics. 2013;5(1):151-8.