Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student Department of Sport Management, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of service quality in Iran football premier league clubs and to provide a suitable model. The research method was descriptive and correlational which was conducted as a field. The statistical population consisted of spectators of Zob-e-Ahan and Sepahan clubs in Iran football premier league and 360 subjects were selected as the sample by random non-probability sampling method. To collect data, the service questionnaire by Cronin and Taylor (1994), Parasuraman et al. (1998), Yoshida and James (2011), Rust et al. entertainment questionnaire (2004), Satun et al. team identity questionnaire (1997), and Kahle and Madrigal comfort questionnaire (2003) were used. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the demographic characteristics and to analyze the data, the structural equation modeling was used by Lisrel software. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate regression were also used in the inferential statistics. The findings showed a significant relationship between play atmosphere and aesthetic quality, population experience and aesthetic quality, team performance and technical quality, features of players in the opponent team and technical quality, service staff and quality of performance, access to facilities and quality of performance, spectators positions and quality of performance, aesthetic quality and entertainment dimension, technical quality and team identity and finally between quality of performance and the comfort of spectators.


1.Al-Thibiti , Y.”A scale development for sport fan motivation”. PhD Dissertation,Florida State University , Florida , United States.2004. pp: 35-52. (In Persian).
2.Iravani, Tayebeh, Atashgar, Karim. A Review of Service Quality Measurement Models and Assessment of their Capacity at the Annual Conference of Management and Economics.2015.(in Persian). /publication/290435368.2015. (In Persian).
3.Theodorakis ,N.D. , Koustelios ,A., Robinson , L., Barlas , A.”Moderating role of team identification on the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions among spectators of professional sports “.Managing Service Quality: An International Journal.2009.19(4),pp:456-473.
4.Duncan M, & Gary H. The relationship among service quality, value, satisfaction, and future intentions of customers at an Australian sports and leisure center. Sport Management Review.2002. 5:25-43.
5.Babakus,E.,Bienstock, C.C., van Scotter, J.R.” Linking perceived quality and customer satisfaction to store traffic and revenue growth “. Decision Sciences.2004.35(4),pp:713-737.
6. Ahire,S. L. Dreyfus , P.” The impact of design management and process management on quality: An empirical investigation”. Journal of Operations Management.2000.18(5),pp:549-575.
7.Lee JK, Kim HD, Ko YJ, and Sagas M. The influence of service quality on satisfaction and intention: A gender segmentation strategy. Sport Management Review.2011. 14:54–63.
8.Aldlaigan, B. F.((Systera –SQ: A new measure of bank service quality)). International Journal of Service Industry management ,2002. Vol.13,No.4.
9.Olorunniwo, F.;Maxwell, K. H.;Godwin,U.Service Quality. Journal of Services Marketing.2006 , Vol.20,No.1,pp.59-72.
10.Liu, Y-Ch.An Analysis Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty of Commercial Swim Clubs in Taiwan. A Dissertation Project Submitted to the Faculty of the United States Academy in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Sports Management.2008.
11.Juga, J.,Juntunen , J., Grant , D. B. Service Quality and its Relation to Satisfaction and Loyalty in Logistics Outsourcing Relationships , Managing Service Quality.2010. Vol. 20,No6,pp.496-510.
12. Hussein AS. How event awareness,event quality and event image creates visitor revisit intention?:A lesson from car free day event. Procedia Economics and Finance.2016:35:396-400. (In Persian).
13.Brady,M. and Cronin, J. Some New Thoughts on Conceptualizing Perceived Service Quality: A Hierarchical Approach.The Journal of Marketing.2001. Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 34-49.
14.Parasuraman, A.,Zeithaml,V. A.,&Berry,L. L.SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale formeasuring customer perceptions ofservice quality. Journal ofRetailing.1988. 64(1), 12–40. (In Persian).
15. Grönroos, Christian."Service Quality: The Six Criteria of Good Perceived Service Quality,"Review of Business..1988.9 (Winter), 10-13.
16. Baker,J.& Cameron,M.The effects of the service environment on affect and consumer perception of waiting time: An integrative review and research propositions.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.1996.24(4),338-349).
17.Yoshida M, James JD. 2011. Service quality at sporting events: Is aesthetic quality a missing Dimension? Sport Management Review.2011. 14:13–24.
18.Turley , L.W., Milliman , R. E.” Atmospheric effects on shopping behavior:A review of the experimental evidence”. Journal of Business Research.2000.49, pp:1016-1048.
19.Chen, C. Y., Lin Y. H., Chiu , H. T.” Development and psychometric evaluation of sport atadium atmosphere scale in spectator sport events “. European Sport Management Quarterly.2013. 2,pp: 200-215.
20.Uhrich , S., Benkenstein , M.” Sport stadium atmosphere: Formative and reflective indicators for operationalizing the construct”. Journal of Sport Management. 2010.24, pp: 211-237.
21. Garvin, D. A. What does ‘‘product quality’’ really mean? Sloan Management Review.1984.26(1), 25–43.
22.Chen, J. L. Managerial factors affecting team identification.PHD dissertation of Florida state university.2007.
23.Matsuka, H.,Chelladurai, P. and Harada, M. “ Direct and interaction effects of team identification and satisfaction on intention to attend games”.Sport Marketing Quarterly.2003. Vol. 12,No.4, pp:244-253.
24.Wann , D. L., Koch ,K., Knoth , T., Fox , D. The impact of team identification on baised predictions of player performance “. The psychological Record. 2006. pp: 55-66.
25.Medoff, M. H.” On monopsonistic exploitation in professional baseball”. Quarterly Review of Economics and Business,1976. Vol.16, No.2,p:113.
26. Jones, J. C.H. “ Winners, Losers and hosers and hosers: demand and survival in the national Hockey League”Atlantic Economic Journal.1984.Vol.12, No.3,p:54.
27.Hill, B., & Green, B. C. Repeat attendance as a function of involvement, loyalty, and the sportscape across three football contexts. Sport management review.2000. 3(2), 145-162.
28. Alidoost GahFarokhi, Ebrahim and ahmadi, Ali. ["A study on the relationship between the quality of services and the satisfaction of spectators in the host cities of the AAC Champions League." (In persian)].Sports Management Journal.2012. Volume 4, Issue 14, pp. 47-31. (In Persian).
29. Ali Mohammadi, Hossein,Tondnevis, Fereydoun and Hadavi farideh. ["Comparison of Effective Factors on Spectators in Iran's Football, Basketball and Volleyball Leagues Championships "(in Persian)]. Two Research Papers in Sport Management.2013.Vol. 3, p. 5, pp. 111-99. (In Persian).
30.Chen,C. M. , Lee, H. T. , Chen , S. H. , Huang , T. H. “ Tourist behavioral intention to service quality and customer satisfaction in Kinmen National Park, Taiwan”.International Journal of Tourism Research.2011. 13(5), pp: 416-432.
31.Gencer , R. T. The relationship between team identification and service quality perceptions in professional football. “ African Journal of Business Management.2011.5(6),2140-2150.
32.Soheyli Behzad.[ Test of satisfaction model of spectators in Iranian Football League.(In Persian) ]Sport Management.2018. Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 181 – 203.
33.Shiue G. Effects of Team Identification on Motives , Behavior Outcomes , and Percived Service Quality. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences ,2009. Vol. 4, No. 2-3, pp.76-90.
34.Galen , B. W. , Trail , T. Kwon , H. and Anderson , D. “ Testing models of motives and points of attachment among spectators in college Football “. Sport Marketing Quarterly. 2009.t8, pp:38-53.
35.Underwood , R., Bond, E. and Baer, R.Building Service Brands Via Social Identity: Lessons from the sports Marketplaces. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice , 2001.Vol.9, No.1, pp: 1-13.
36.Wakefield, K. L., Blodgett, J. G., & Sloan, H. J. Measurement and management of the sportscape. Journal of Sport Management,1996. 10(1), 15–31.
37.Blodgett, J. G., Daniery, W.L. "Service quality in sports". Journal of Sport Marketing. 2018. 21(4), pp: 27-39.
38.Peichao Dai and Xuzh vey ,Service quality and satisfaction, Jiangsu university, Recreational Sport Activities journal,.2019.vol 38 ,pp. 17 -29.
39.Karegar Gh. [Analysis of sporting facilities in country and determining the factors affecting productivity from the viewpoint of experts and presending the producer model. (In Persian)]. Doctorial dissertation. Iran: Tehran University.2004. (In Persian).
40. Khatibzadeh Mehdi , [The Relationship of Perception of Quality of Service with Satisfaction and the Desire to Return Sports Tourists.(in Persian)]. Journal of Management and Sports.2013. Year 5, No. 1, pp. 24-35. (In Persian).
41.Mahmoodi, Ahmad., Sajjadi, Seyyednasrolah, and Goodarzi, Mahmoud.[ Investigating the Effect of Quality of Services and Customer Satisfaction on Spectators Loyality in Sport Clubs (aerobics and bodybuilding).(In Persian)]. Sports Management Journal.2015. 7 (1), 31-51. (In Persian).
42. Sajjadi, Seyyednasrolah , Goodarzi , Mahmood and Mizani Mehran.[ Comparison of the quality of services offered at sports clubs (fitness and bodybuilding) in the state and private towns of Tehran from the point of view of customers.(In Persian)]. Contemporary Research on Sport. 2013. 1 (2), 33-48. (In Persian).
43.Kim, Yu Kyung, Lee, Kyung Ryong. Customer satisfaction using low cost carrier, Journal of Tourism Management.(2011).32: 235-240.
44.Koo G , Hardin R. McClung S, Jung T , Cronin J, Vorhees C, Bourdeau B. Examination of the casual effects between the dimentions of service quality and spectator satisfaction in minor league baseball. International journal of sports marketing and sponsorship.2009.11(1):46-59.
45.Shiue G. Effects of Team Identification on Motives , Behavior Outcomes , and Percived Service Quality. Asian Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences. 2009. Vol. 4, No. 2-3, pp.76-90.
46.Biscaia R, Correia A, Yoshida M, Rosado A.Maroco J.(2013). The role of service quality and ticket pricing on safisfaction and behavioural intention within professional football.International journal of sport marketing and sponsorship. 2013.14(4):301-326.
47.Yildiz SM. An importance –performance analysis of fitness centre service quality: empirical results from fitness centres in Turkey. African Journal of Business Management.2011.5(16):31-41.