Document Type : Research Paper
Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabatab'i University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Arak University, Arak, Iran
The aim of this study was to identify the dimensions of social entrepreneurship in sport to achieve sustainable sport development. The research method was qualitative and literature review and interviews were used to collect data and experts’ viewpoints. In addition, the convergence rates of participants towards indicators were evaluated by Delphi method. Statistical sample included sport management professors, entrepreneurship management professors and sport entrepreneurs who were selected purposively. According to the dimensions of social entrepreneurship, the indicators and opportunities for social entrepreneurship were identified as job creation, social changes by athletes, women's participation in sport, athletes’ solidarity with social exclusions, voluntary work in sport and charity activities. As there are certain indicators to determine a framework based on social benefit and values in the sport development, this article explained the indicators and dimensions of social entrepreneurship in sport and supported the participation to develop social capital, social change and to enhance the quality of life through social entrepreneurship in sport. So, given that one of the goals of sustainable sport development is social justice, equal opportunities for participation, social cohesion, improved quality of life and generally attention to social entrepreneurship, it is necessary to develop and spread the collaboration of sport institutions with other organizations such as Welfare Organization, Red Crescent Organization and Social Security Organization to develop those activities related to social entrepreneurship in sport and recreation
- Anon. Social entrepreneurship. A closer look at business education. 2006, [www. Caseplace.org], 14 may 2011
- Dees, J.G. Taking social entrepreneurship seriously. Society, 2007, 44(3), 24-31.
- Dees, J. G. The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Comments and suggestions contributed from the Social Entrepreneurship Funders Working Group, 2001, pg:6.
- Hums.,M.A. The conscience and commerce of sport management: One teacher’s perspective. Journal of Sport Management, 2010, 24, 1-9.
- Aminuddin, Y, Pariah, M. Globalization and Malaysian Sports Industry. Journal of Intentional Studies. 2008, 8 (1): 112-116
- Northeastern University Center. Sport in Society. [http://www.northeastern.edu/sportinsociety/fitz/impact/index.html].2007, pg:1
- Corner, P. D., & Ho, M. How opportunities develop in social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 2010, 34(4), 635-659.
- Boroj yazdi, M. Developing the model for social entrepreneurship development in Tehran city, Master Thesis, faculty of management, Tehran University, Abstract, 2009, pg. 1,(in Persian).
- Heidary, M.M. The relationship between social entrepreneurship and effectiveness of performance in non-government organizations, Master Thesis, faculty of management, Tehran University, abstract, 2007, pg. 1, (in Persian).
- Emrani Tabarestani, Z. Prioritizing the factors affecting social entrepreneurship in Iran form the viewpoint of the social activists. Master Thesis, faculty of management, Allameh Tabatab'i University, abstract, 2009, pg. 1, (in Persian).
- Gilmore, A., Gallagher, D., & O'Dwyer. Is Social Entrepreneurship an Untapped Marketing Resource? A Commentary on its Potential for Small Sports Clubs. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 2011 24(1), 11-15.
- Ratten, V. Social entrepreneurship and innovation in sports. International Journal of Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2011, 1(1), 42-54.
- Byrd, M. J. and L. C. Megginson. Small Business Management. New York, 2009, pg. 12.
- Ratten, V. and H. Ratten, International sport marketing: practical and future research implications. Journal of business and industrial marketing 2011, 26(8): 614-620.
- Vallance, S., H. C. Perkins, et al. "What is social sustainability? A clarification of concepts." Geoforum, 2011, 42(3): 342-348.
- Michael,M., Chelladurai, Packianathan. Gross domestic sport product: the size of the sport industry in the United States, Journal of sport management, 2011, 25:24-35.
- Smith, B. R., & Stevens, C. E. Different types of social entrepreneurship: The role of geography and embeddedness on the measurement and scaling of social value. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 2010, 22(6), 575-598
- A'arabi, M., Najafi Pashai, K. Entrepreneurship strategic management, Tehran: Mahkameh publication, 2009, pg.45, (in Persian).
- Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei-Skillern, J. Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Same, Different, or Both? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 2006, 30(1), 1-22.
- Duru, O., et al. "A fuzzy extended DELPHI method for adjustment of statistical time series prediction: An empirical study on dry bulk freight market case." Expert Systems with Applications, 2012, 39(1): 840-848.
- Schmidt R.C., Managing Survey Using Nonparametric Statistical technique, Decision Sciences, 1997, 28(3): 763-773.
- Wu, C.-H. W.-C. Fang. "Combining the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and the fuzzy Delphi method for developing critical competences of electronic commerce professional managers." Quality & Quantity, 2011, 45(4): 751-768.
- Hemingway, C. A. and P. W. Maclagan. "Managers' personal values as drivers of corporate social responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics 2004, 50(1): 33-44
- Ciletti, D., & Chadwick, S. Sports Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice: Fitness Information Technology 2012, pg.65.
- Spaaij, R."The social impact of sport: diversities, complexities and contexts." Sport in Society , 2009, 12(9): 1109-1117
- Meyskens, M., Carsrud, A., Cardozo. R. The Impact of Resources on Social Entrepreneurship Organizations: The Symbiosis of Entities in the Social Engagement Network. USASBE 2008 Proceedings – Page: 0865.
- Hylton, K., Bramham, R, Jackson, D., &Nesti, M. (Eds). Sports development.' Policy, process and practice. London: Routledge.2001, pg:13.