Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran

2 Faculty and Professor of Economics of Tehran University

3 Tehran University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences faculty member and Associate Professor, Department of Management and Planning


The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of outcome uncertainty induced by increased competitive balance level on the amount of spectators' attendance in Iran football premier league. Therefore, the amount of spectators' attendance in Iran football premier league was prepared, collected and organized in detail by library sources, the present sources of league organization, federation as well the reliable publications of the club. In addition, the competitive balance was calculated using three applicable standards of C5, SDW and Herfindal for four football leagues of Iran, Japan, China and South Korea. The results indicated that Iran football premier league enjoyed the highest competitive balance level among the above four leagues based on Herfindal standard. In addition, the results obtained from Granger causality test and the comparison of two variables of 'presence' and 'competitive balance level' in Iran football premier league indicated that in addition to the initial effect of competitive balance, increased uncertainty of the outcome of matches (increased level of competitive balance) increased spectators' attendance.


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