Document Type : Research Paper


shahid rejaee teacher training university of tehran


The aim of this study was to assess the determinants of legal competences of sports managers from the viewpoints of academic experts and sports executives. The population consisted of 331 subjects including all sports executives of cities of Tehran province, Tehran city, Tehran municipality regions, universities in Tehran city, regions of education in Tehran and sport management professors of the universities in Tehran. According to Morgan & Krejcie table, 180 subjects were selected by stratified random sampling method as the sample of the study. Data were collected by 37-item Questionnaire of the Competencies of Sports Event Managers by TOH (1997). Findings showed that the six determinants of the legal competencies of sport executives were facility/equipment management, emergency plans, legal compliance, organizational policies and procedures, risk management, public relations respectively. Also, no statistically significant differences were observed between men and women viewpoints in the priorities of necessary legal competencies of executives (P≤0.05). It seems that continuous education of sport executives could prevent the risks and legal pleas and of awareness of authorities of human resources departments of legal issues related to sports management could prevent damages resulting from improper placement of individuals in sport management positions.


  1. بگلری، جهانگیر (1388). حلوفصل اختلافات ورزشی از طریق حکمیت و داوری، پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشگاه آزاد تهران مرکز، ص 66-65.
  2. پارخوس، بونی (1393). مدیریت در ورزش، ترجمۀ رضا محمدکاظمی و عباس نظریان مادوانی، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، ص 222- 221.
  3. رجب­حسنی، آمنه (1393). تعیین و اولویت­بندی عوامل مؤثر در دعاوی حقوقی مرتبط با فعالیت­های ورزشی، پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد. دانشگاه تربیت دبیر شهید رجایی، ص 5.
  4. سهرابی، پوریا (1391). «بررسی معیارهای ایمنی، کنترل و نظارت فضاهای ورزشی»، همایش ملی تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد تفت.
  5. علوی قزوینی، سید علی؛ مقدادی، محمدمهدی (1390). «مبانی فقهی و حقوقی عدم­ مسئولیت مدنی ورزشکاران در عملیات ورزشی»، مجلۀ علمی ـ پژوهشی نامۀ مفید، ش 85، ص 45-43.
  6. علیزاده، محمدحسین؛ تجاری، فرشاد ( 1385). بررسی شیوه­های افزایش بهرهوری اماکن، تأسیسات و تجهیزات ورزشی، طرح پژوهشی پژوهشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی وزارت علوم.
  7. فروغی، جواد (1384). بررسیمیزانآگاهیوآشناییمربیانورزش،معلمانتربیت ­بدنیومدیرانورزشیشهرتهرانباحقوقورزشی، پژوهشکدۀ تربیت ­بدنی، ص 79.
  8. منتظری نجف­آبادی، حسن (1390). حقوق ورزش و مسئولیت مدنی ورزشکاران، پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز تهران، ص 48-47.
  9. Burnstein, I.M. (1994).” Liability for injuries suffered in the course of recreational sport: application of the negligence standard”. University of Detroit Mercy Law Review, 71:993-1023.
  10. Choi, H. S. (2010). “Legal risks of golf course directors”. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the North American Society of Sport Management (NASSM) 2010 Conference, Tampa, FL.
  11. Choi, H. S. (2014). “Legal Competencies Essential for Golf Directors”. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 9-28.
  12. Chong-En Bai & etal (2008), how does privatization work in China? Association for Comparative Economic Studies
  13. Cotton, D. J., & Wolohan, J. T. (2013). “Law for recreation and sport managers” (6thed). Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.
  14. Elriena Eksteen, Y. Willemse, D.D.J. Malan and S. EllisVol.( 2015). Competencies and training needs for school sport managers in the North- west Province of South Africa. Journal of Physical Education and Sport Management 6(9) pp. 90-96.
  15. Fields, S. K., & Young, S. J. (2010). “Learning from the past: An analysis of case law impacting campus recreational sport programs”. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 20(1), 73-94.
  16. Girvan, G, Girvan, J.T (1993). “Risk management practices in athletics- A content analysis”. Journal of Physical Education Recreation & Dance, 64(4): Research Library, P 26.
  17. Golden, Cynthia (2012). Planning for professional Development-Advice for the manager. Educause quarterly, v22 NL. pp: 44-42.
  18. Hong Suk Choi,(2014 )Legal Competencies Essential for Golf Directors. Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, December 2014, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 9-28.
  19. Jamieson, L. M. (1980). “A competency analysis of recreational sports personnel in selected institutional settings (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)”. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
  20. Jennings, M. W. (1984). “Entry level competencies for recreational sports personnel as identified by chairs of preparatory institutions (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)”. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
  21. Lee, S., Farley, L. A., & Kwon, O. (2010). “The effectiveness of risk management plans in recreational sport programs of division I-A universities”. Recreational Sports Journal, 34(1), 58-68.
  22. National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (2014). Core competencies underpin NIRSA’s professional development opportunities. Retrieved from Registry/Core_Competencies/wcm/_Grow/Registry/Core_Competencies.aspx?hkey=400eb9eb-0e09-4171-9615-841aabf2983a
  23. Parker, C. Mathews, P (2001). “Customer Satisfaction Contrasting Academic and Consumers Interpretations" Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol 12, NO 1, pp: 32-44
  24. Rapp, G. C. (2012). “Field of broken dreams: The quest for rule-of-law in sports litigation”. Texas Review of Entertainment & Sports Law, 13, 102.
  25. Skipper, W. T. (1990).” Competencies for collegiate sports facility managers: Implication for a facility management curricular model (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)”. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.
  26. The Commission on Sport Management Accreditation (n.d.). "Guidelines for accreditation site visits: for site team evaluators and institutions". Retrieved from
  27. Toh, K. L. (1997). “Constructing and validating competencies of sport managers (COSM) instrument: a model development (Unpublished doctoral dissertation)”. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.
  28. Young, S. J. (2001). “The importance of legal aspects for new professionals in recreational sports: A perspective of practicing professionals”. LARNet, The Cyber Journal of Applied Leisure and Recreation Research, Retrieved from http://larnet. Org/ 2001-2.htm
  29. Young, S. J., Fields, S. K., & Powell, G. M. (2007). “Risk perceptions versus legal realities incampus recreational sport programs”. Recreational Sports Journal, 31(2), 131-145.